Understanding Digital Forensics

The process of preserving, identifying, extracting, and documenting digital evidence that may be used in court is known as digital forensics. Finding evidence from digital media, such as a computer, smartphone, server, or network, is a science. It gives the forensic team the finest methods and resources to handle challenging digital-related cases. The use of digital forensics by the forensic team facilitates the identification, preservation, and analysis of digital evidence on many kinds of electronic devices.


In the forensic procedure, it is the initial stage. The identification procedure primarily involves questions about the presence of evidence, where it is kept, and how it is held (in which format). Computers, mobile phones, PDAs, and other devices may all be used as electronic storage devices.


Data is segregated, protected, and kept throughout this period. To avoid tampering with digital evidence, it also involves blocking access to the digital device.


In this stage, investigators piece together bits of information and make judgments based on the evidence gathered. However, it could take many rounds of analysis to prove a certain criminal scenario.


A record of all the data that is readily accessible must be made throughout this phase. It aids in examining and recreating the crime scene. Taking pictures, making sketches, and mapping the crime scene involve accurately recording the crime scene.


The process of summarizing and explaining findings is completed in this last stage. However, it should be expressed using abbreviated terminology and in layman’s words. All terms that have been abstracted should include relevant facts.

Digital Forensics Methods

  • In disk forensics, actively changed or deleted files are searched to retrieve data from the storage medium.
  • A division of digital forensics is network forensics. It involves keeping track of and examining computer network traffic to gather crucial data and legal proof.
  • Network forensics includes a subset called wireless forensics. Wireless forensics’ major objective is to provide the tools required to gather and analyze the data from wireless network traffic.
  • Database forensics is a subfield of digital forensics that deals with analyzing databases and the associated information.
  • Malware Forensics: This field focuses on identifying harmful code and researching its payload, which includes viruses, worms, and other threats.
  • Forensics of Email focuses on email recovery and analysis, including analysis of calendars, contacts, and deleted emails.
  • Memory Forensics: This field deals with the raw extraction of data from system memory (RAM, cache, and system registers) and subsequent carving of the data from the raw dump.
  • Mobile device inspection and analysis are the major topics of mobile phone forensics. Retrieving phone and SIM contacts, call history, incoming and outgoing SMS/MMS, audio files, movies, and other data. Digital forensics’ benefits

The advantages of digital forensics

  1. To guarantee the computer system’s integrity.
  • To provide evidence in court that will allow the guilty party to be punished.
  • If a company’s computer systems or networks are hacked, it aids businesses in obtaining crucial information.
  • Efficiently finds cybercriminals wherever they may be.
  • It aids in safeguarding the organization’s money and valuable time.
  • Allows for extracting, processing, and interpreting factual evidence, proving cybercrime in court.

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Why does Cybersecurity knowledge stop ransomware attacks?

Knowledge increases your awareness. And it helps you stay alert to protect yourself. Ransomware is just one type of malware. But it also does specific things like encrypting your files and holding your data hostage to extort for ransom money. The point is how you can prevent malware from executing. And how you can recover.

A knowledgeable person would refrain themselves from greed and randomly running programs off the internet or using pirated software. A knowledgeable person would keep their computer software up-to-date. And would not be fooled by internet scam messages. Furthermore, a knowledgeable person would ensure they have a proper data backup strategy, so they could restore their data in event of an attack or disaster.

Against ransomware, the first piece of knowledge everyone misses is, that your files are not going to come back. Even if you pay. Even if you pay them twice. So, no use paying. Just clean the infected machines and restore them from backups. This is the economy. When no one pays, there is no economic sense of ransomware, it’ll just be vandalism and nothing else.

And obviously, your users must be educated not to be the prey of cyber-attacks (e.g. phishing, clicking on suspicious links, downloading unauthorized software, etc.), but that’s a part of hygiene and doesn’t specifically apply to ransomwares.

What minimizes the chance of ransomware attacks is following the appropriate policies to prevent it on a consistent basis. Employees don’t even need to ‘understand’ in great detail why a policy exists, as long as they follow it.

You know how they say the ‘human’ element is always the weak link?

All it takes is for one employee to make a mistake. That’s why a lot of companies drill the policies over and over again for their employees. While at the same time trying to minimize employee access to unnecessary resources.

For example, it’s common practice for most employees to not have local admin rights to their laptops. We even disable USB storage devices. Those of us who do have these privileges need to demonstrate a high understanding of the risks on a regular basis. Some companies even randomly test employees with fake phishing schemes. Falling for their results in additional training. Falling for it again could lead to dismissal!

The problem with most ransomware is that there are better ways to stop these attacks now. Various companies have now specialized in fighting ransomware and managed to decrypt many systems that were under attack at no cost. They basically reverse-engineer the ransomware to find out how to undo the damage. This makes ransomware less useful against small targets where the ransom won’t be high. After all, they need to earn back the costs of developing the ransomware.

Ransomeware can be mitigated by frequent, high-quality data backups that are stored offline from the target systems and kept for a reasonable period of time. That way if your systems are compromised you can restore the data. Use an effective anti-malware application on the endpoints to detect and quarantine the ransomware to avoid spreading.

How phishing attacks are exploiting businesses

Cybercriminals seek to exploit genuine sites and services in their phishing schemes, not only to deceive naive victims but also to evade security scanners that would normally block traffic from a malicious site. This form of fraud often succeeds because the perpetrator is able to circumvent standard security measures. Analyzing the connected URL, traditional email security systems utilize static Allow and Block lists to assess whether the content is valid. Businesses, at most times, will always be on the Allow list, allowing phishing emails to reach the user’s mailbox.

“Phishing” refers to the attempt to get personal information via deception. For instance, my company receives many emails each day from individuals “claiming” to be workers and requests that our HR department provides them with the bank account information they have on file to ensure that their paycheck is deposited in the correct account. Or providing them a new account number and requesting that future checks be sent to the new account.

Such example informing you that you’ve won the lottery and requesting your banking details in order to deliver the reward. Or stating you will get a large inheritance, but they need to verify your social security number and mother’s maiden name to ensure you are the intended recipient.

The majority of phishing assaults will arrive through email. Although we have seen similar tactics in phone calls. It derives its name from the method of “fishing” in which bait is cast in the hopes that something would bite. They send out hundreds of emails every day with the expectation that someone would fall for one of them.

Email phishing is a game of numbers. Even if just a tiny number of receivers fall for the ruse, an attacker who sends thousands of fake communications may get considerable information and quantities of money. As stated in the preceding section, attackers use several methods to boost their success rates. First, they will go to considerable measures to create phishing communications that seem to originate from a legitimate firm. Using the same language, fonts, logos, and signatures lends legitimacy to the messaging.

To protect your business and workers against phishing attempts of various types:

  • Before clicking on any link in an email, hover over it to see the destination URL.
  • Always examine the email’s content prior to taking action.
  • Encourage workers who doubt the veracity of an email to call the help desk or IT assistance.
  • Scan all hyperlinks in incoming email messages for harmful content at delivery and upon click.
  • Do not rely only on Block or Allow lists, since attackers continue to use legal websites and services to circumvent these lists.
  • Utilize AI that analyzes various elements to decide if an email is harmful or not.
  • Implement sophisticated email security that can determine the genuine aim of communication by analyzing its nature.

IT companies caution that they would never send unsolicited emails or make unwanted phone calls to acquire personal or financial information or to service your computer. They recommend that anybody who gets such a message deletes the email or hangs up the phone. If more assurance is required, people may immediately contact the business using the phone numbers included in their contract or other reliable sources.

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Be Aware of Zeppelin Ransomware Attacks

The Zeppelin has mostly been used against healthcare institutions during the last three years. Defense contractors, educational institutions, businesses engaged in manufacturing, and technological firms are also victims. Actors in Zeppelin have been known to ask for anywhere from a few thousand dollars to more than a million dollars as their first ransom.

Some of Zeppelin’s tactics, methods, and procedures (TTPs) include using phishing emails to trick people into giving up their passwords and exploiting RDP connections and SonicWall firewall flaws to get initial access.

The threat actors were seen spending up to two weeks on the target network before delivering the ransomware, mapping, and cataloging devices and assets, including cloud storage and network backups. They also steal private information and use it as a bargaining chip to force victims to pay a ransom.

Zeppelin also seems to have a new multi-encryption attack strategy that involves running the malware many times on a victim’s network and giving each attack a different ID and file extension.

Zeppelin is commonly installed using a PowerShell loader and a.dll or.exe file. It adds a randomly generated nine-digit hexadecimal extension to every encrypted file. A ransom letter is left on the hacked computers, often on the desktop. The attacker creates the key pair (K,P)—public and private keys—and then delivers the virus using the asymmetric public key (K).

The CIA claims that threat actors spend one to two weeks mapping or enumerating a network after successfully breaking in to find data enclaves, such as cloud storage and network backup. They then use a PowerShell loader or a.dll or.exe file to distribute the Zeppelin ransomware. Most ransomware algorithms in use today use a global master key to encrypt the other keys that do the actual encryption.

In its most recent attacks, Zeppelin seems to be using the standard ransomware method of “double extortion,” which involves stealing sensitive files from a target before encrypting them and then making them public if the target doesn’t pay.

1) After being run within the victim’s system, the virus creates a random symmetric key (R) and uses it to encrypt the system’s contents.

2) It then encrypts the symmetric key using the asymmetric public key (K) given by the virus (R). It’s known as hybrid encryption. (The file’s symmetric key is now encrypted with a public key, and the attacker’s private key is the only thing that can unlock it.)

3) After encryption is complete, the victim receives a message with the asymmetric ciphertext (Ck) and instructions on how to pay to get the data decrypted. When the victim sends money to the attacker, they also send the encrypted symmetric-cipher key, which is called (Ck) asymmetric ciphertext.

Attacker: It uses the victim’s private key (P) to decrypt the files and obtains the symmetric key that was used to encrypt them. The symmetric key that may be used to decrypt the files is now sent by the attacker to the victim.

Organizations are told to use network segmentation, enforce a strong password policy, turn off unused ports and services, audit user accounts and domain controllers, set up a least-privilege access policy, keep all software and operating systems up to date, keep offline backups of data, and set up a recovery plan to lower the risk of ransomware compromise.

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Is learning computer networking useful for cyber security?

Absolutely. You must have a solid understanding of computer networking in order to comprehend the fundamentals of cyber security. You can better understand how networks may be exploited and secured if you really comprehend topics like Ethernet, IP, TCP, and VLANs (to mention a few). Any certification or course in cyber security will demand you to have a thorough grasp of networks’ operation and all of their protocols.

As far as I can understand, to enter the field of cyber security, you don’t actually need any prior coding or networking knowledge. Asking 10 individuals what “Cyber Security” is can elicit between 11 and 20 different replies, demonstrating how hazy the whole field is. There hasn’t been much agreement among the people I’ve contacted. Despite having one thing in common, the folks are passionate about whatever cyber security is, and they don’t take criticism well and possess a thorough grasp of networking, including TCP/IP, UDP, ports, and the ISO OSI model.

It would be beneficial to have some programming knowledge, at the very least scripting in (say) Python. However, something like C may also come in handy. A knowledge of human behavior will help you comprehend their objectives. Humans will always be the greatest defense and the weakest link in cybersecurity.

You must be aware of the services that are operating, the ports and protocols they are using, as well as what is permitted in and out if you are responsible for safeguarding a server on your network. All of that is networking. On TCP port 3389, an MS Terminal Server service will be active. Therefore, you must understand how to manage that traffic. Additionally, you must be able to monitor network traffic for harmful indications of an assault.

That depends on how successful you want to be. In my experience with application security, the more basic networking knowledge one has, the more successful one may deploy security measures. Would you want someone to help safeguard the network and advise your network/system administrators on the best ways to deploy repairs if you were a manager? Additionally, if you were a network administrator, wouldn’t it be simpler to communicate with someone who really knew networking? These uncommon cyber security specialists are in great demand and earn the highest wages.

So I advise you to thoroughly study networking. For a while, I worked as a network administrator. and learn the Windows and Linux operating systems. Utilize as many network surveillance technologies as you can. Where are assaults most likely to happen? How can I best protect these? Apply fixes in accordance with the manufacturer’s advice. Read and learn about the most recent trends often. Obtain the Network+, CCNA, Security+, CISM, and CISSP certifications. After that, you’ll be in a great position to work in cyber security. You may always return to networking since you will already be an expert at it.

The apex of this business is not certifications. They aren’t even respected in many locations. They do, however, include systematic learning. You should constantly be learning new things. Never stop learning. An IT certification enables you to demonstrate your understanding of new topics after learning them in an organized manner. They are not the magic solution, but when it comes to employment, someone with certification is worth more than someone without one. It demonstrates learning, a commitment to the subject matter, and most importantly, an investment in oneself. that you want knowledge and greater proficiency in the field.

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What is network computing?

A computer network is a group of interconnected computers that may interact and share resources. Using a set of principles known as communications protocols, these networked devices transmit data over wireless or physical methods.

What is a computer network’s operation?

Nodes and connections are the essential building blocks of computer networks. A network node may consist of data terminal equipment (DTE), such as multiple computers and printers, or data communication equipment (DCE), such as a modem, hub, or switch. A link refers to the transmission medium that connects two nodes. Links can be physically existent, such as cable lines or optical fibers, or they might be unused places used by wireless networks.

Nodes in a functioning computer network adhere to the rules or protocols that stipulate how to transmit and receive electronic data across the links. The design of these physical and logical components is governed by the architecture of the computer network. It provides standards for the network’s physical components, operational organization, protocols, and practices.

What do computer networks do?

In the late 1950s, the first computer networks for defense and military applications were created. Initially, they had limited commercial and scientific applications and were utilized for data transmission over telephone lines. As a result of the evolution of internet technologies, computer networks have become indispensable to enterprises.

Contemporary network systems give more than just connectivity. They are important to the success of modern businesses and the digital transformation of industries. Today’s network foundations are more programmable, automated, and secure.

Today’s computer networks can:

Perform virtually

By conceptually subdividing the underlying physical network design, it is possible to establish many “overlay” networks. The nodes in an overlay computer network are virtually linked, and data can be transmitted between them via a variety of physical means. For example, the internet is utilized to connect many business networks.

Systematically combine

Physically independent computer networks are connected by modern networking services. By automating and monitoring network operations, these services can facilitate the development of a single, vast, high-performance network. Network services may be scaled up or down based on demand.

Rapidly adjust to changing conditions

A significant number of computer networks are defined by software. A digital interface can be used to route and manage traffic centrally. These computer networks permit virtual traffic administration.

Secure data is provided

All networking technologies include access control and encryption as standard security features. Integrating third-party products such as firewalls, antimalware, and antivirus software can enhance network security.

There are two primary classifications for computer network design:

An architecture based on client and server

In this type of computer network, nodes may be clients or servers. Client nodes receive resources, such as memory, computational power, and data, from server nodes. The activities of client nodes may also be governed by server nodes. Clients can interact with one another, but they cannot trade resources. Some machines in business networks, for instance, preserve data and configuration settings. These devices are representative of the network’s servers. Clients may seek server computer access to this data.

Peer-to-peer networking

In a peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture, all connected computers share the same rights and privileges. There is no centralized server for coordination. Each computer network device has the ability to behave as either a server or a client. A percentage of each peer’s resources, like memory and processing speed, can be shared across the entire network. Using the P2P architecture, a number of businesses host memory-intensive applications, such as 3-D visual processing, on a multitude of digital devices.

What are some fascinating computer security facts?

Computer security encompasses all types of attacks, including malware, denial of service, a man in the middle, phishing, and more. The established industry requirements for computer security include confidentiality, integrity, and availability. These assaults may have a range of aims, including information theft, disruption of corporate operations, ransom demands, etc.

The following are some shocking cybersecurity facts:

• Every 39 seconds, one in three Americans is the target of a hacker attack.

• 43 percent of cyberattacks are directed at small enterprises.

• The mortgage industry is the primary target of cyberattacks against financial institutions, which are the largest targets overall.

• Firewalls and antivirus software provide inadequate protection against cyberattacks.

• It takes nearly 5 months to discover a data breach, and more than 77% of businesses lack a cyber security incident response plan.

•In 2017, phishing emails were utilized in 91% of cyberattacks.

• According to the security firm Symantec, 77 percent of all browser assaults targeted Microsoft Corporation’s Internet Explorer.

• More than 58 percent of firms have discovered unauthorized computer access attempts. A third of companies are ignorant of attempts by outsiders to get access to their computers.

Sixty percent of computer misuse is attributable to insiders. Home invasions account for 85 percent of all computer thefts. The greatest threat to intellectual property is still posed by insiders.

• Only 17% of companies with compromised systems inform law enforcement. The fear of negative press was a major barrier for firms to not report them.

MyDoom, the most expensive computer virus, cost $38.5 billion. MyDoom is currently the most expensive virus ever encountered by humanity. Approximately $38.5 billion in financial losses have been caused by this illness. The virus was produced in Russia and recognized for the first time in 2004, but its developer was never discovered. Email worms aided in the quick spread of this malware.

Because they are engaged users who spend a great deal of time on the platforms and are more likely to click on links published by their closest friends, hackers frequently target social media users. This method is known as “like-jacking” when hackers post fake “like” buttons that, when clicked, allow malware to be downloaded onto the victim’s computer.

Currently, cybercriminals prefer ransomware, which is malicious software that holds victim data hostage until a ransom is paid. A hacker may directly extort money from a victim via ransomware, rather than selling the victim’s personal information on the dark web. The threat posed by ransomware focuses on either disclosing the victims’ personal information online or denying them access to their online accounts. 

A number of variables contribute to computer security

Appropriate hygiene for user security. Avoid visiting potentially dangerous websites, keep your operating system and security software (firewall, antivirus, etc.) up-to-date, and make any use-case-specific security improvements that are essential.

Developers of software should be aware of potential security weaknesses and use this knowledge to avoid incorporating them. You could even find already-existing issues and repair them; eventually, the answers would be included in updates that people would be required to install.

In the long run, coding errors and security incidents will decline if we train developers to comprehend the programming language they use for security programs and how to apply security technologies. The future of coding is predicated on security.