What is Wireless Encryption?

Your wireless network is protected by wireless encryption using an authentication process. Each time a person or device wants to connect, a password or network key is required. Unauthorized users may access your wireless network and gain personal information, or they may use your internet connection for nefarious or unlawful purposes if it is not secure. If others use your network without your awareness, your network performance or speed may suffer.

Wi-Fi security methods employ encryption technologies to safeguard client data and secure client networks. Wireless security methods are essential for keeping you safe online since wireless networks are sometimes less secure than wired ones. WEP, WPA, and WPA2 are the most popular Wi-Fi security protocols in use today.

Tools for data encryption scramble sensitive data until it is unreadable to safeguard it. Cryptographic keys are used by Wi-Fi security protocols to randomize data and encrypt it. The same key is used to encrypt and decode data in Wi-Fi networks since they use symmetrical encryption.

WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy): What is it?

Wired Equivalent Privacy, or WEP, is the most well-known and established Wi-Fi security standard. The IEEE 802.11 technical standards, which were created to provide wireless local area networks (WLANs) a degree of security equivalent to that of wired local area networks, included a privacy component (LAN).

In 1999, the Wi-Fi Alliance approved WEP as a security standard. WEP has throughout the years been afflicted by several security problems while being formerly hailed as providing the same security advantages as a wired connection. And these weaknesses have become worse as processing power has expanded. Despite attempts to strengthen WEP, security flaws still exist. In 2004, the Wi-Fi Alliance made WEP a formal no-go.

WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access): What is it?

A wireless security protocol called WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) was introduced in 2003 to solve the developing WEP vulnerabilities. The WPA Wi-Fi protocol is more secure than WEP because it encrypts data using a 256-bit key, a significant improvement over the WEP system’s usage of 64-bit and 128-bit keys.

The Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), another security protocol used by WPA, dynamically produces a new key for each data packet. Compared to the fixed-key scheme employed by WEP, TKIP is far more secure.

WPA is not without faults, however. The foundational element of WPA, TKIP, was created to be added to WEP-capable systems through firmware upgrades. As a consequence, WPA continues to depend on vulnerable components.

WPA2: What is it?

The second iteration of the Wi-Fi Protected Access wireless security protocol is known as WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2). The purpose of WPA2 was to secure and safeguard Wi-Fi networks, much like its predecessor. Only users with your network password may access the data broadcast or received over your wireless network thanks to WPA2.

The Advanced Encryption Technology (AES), which replaced the more exposed TKIP system used in the original WPA protocol, was one advantage of the WPA2 system. AES offers robust encryption and is used by the US government to safeguard confidential information.

Unfortunately, WPA2-enabled access points (often routers) are susceptible to assaults using WEP, much like its predecessor. Disable WEP and, if feasible, make sure your router’s firmware doesn’t depend on it to stop this attack vector.

WPA and WPA2

Two security protocols that safeguard wireless networks are WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) and WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2). The Wi-Fi Protected Access security standard, or WPA2, is now in its second iteration and is thus more secure than WPA. Most likely, both WPA and WPA2 security protocol choices are available on your Wi-Fi router. WPA2 is the most secure Wi-Fi encryption to use when enabling it on your router.

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Understanding Cryptography Algorithms

Cryptographic algorithms

A mathematical process called a cryptographic algorithm is used to alter data to secure it.

Cypher algorithms

An incoherent piece of data (ciphertext) is created by converting understandable information (plaintext) into an unintelligible amount of data (ciphertext), which may then be converted back into plaintext.

Two categories of cypher algorithms exist:


An asymmetric or secret key algorithm uses a key that two communication parties exchange secretly. The same key is used throughout both encryption and decryption. Strictly speaking, symmetric key algorithms use keys that are symmetric to each other.

Two categories of symmetric vital algorithms exist:

Block cypher

The cypher algorithm uses a fixed-size block of data in a block cypher. For instance, eight bytes of plaintext will be encrypted if the block size is eight. By continuously using the low-level encryption function, the user interface for the encrypt/decrypt process often manages data that is longer than the block size.

Stream cypher

Instead of converting data in blocks, stream cyphers do it one bit (or one byte) at a time. In essence, a stream cypher creates a keystream using the supplied key. The plaintext data and the resulting keystream are then XORed.


A pair of keys is used using an asymmetric or public key algorithm (PKA). The private key, one of the keys, is kept confidential and is not disclosed to anybody. The other key, known as the public key, is open to everyone and is not kept hidden. Data can only be decrypted and retrieved using a different key once it has been encrypted using one of the keys. The private key cannot be derived from the public key despite the two keys’ mathematical relationship. A general key algorithm is something like the RSA algorithm.

Compared to symmetric key algorithms, essential public methods are slower. Applications often encrypt hashes and symmetric keys (for key distribution) using basic techniques (in digital signature generation).

The cryptography algorithm and the critical transform data together. The supporting algorithms are all available to the general public. As a result, the key is what regulates access to the data. To secure data, you must keep the keys safe.

One-way hash algorithms

A cryptographic hash algorithm creates a fixed-length output string from a variable-length input string (often known as a digest).

Key distribution algorithms

It might not be easy to distribute the key in a safe way when encrypted data has to be decoded at another site. Key distribution may be done in many different ways. A cryptography algorithm is sometimes used.

Random number generation algorithms

Random number generation is used in many security-related operations. Both IBM i’s Cryptographic Services and the cryptographic coprocessors’ CCA generate random numbers. Both use a pseudorandom number generator that is FIPS-certified (PRNG).

A random bit-value accumulator on the cryptographic coprocessor receives erratic input from an electrical noise generator. The hardware periodically sends seed to a pseudorandom number generator that has received FIPS 140-1 approval.

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Living in a world of computer viruses

You are susceptible to ever-evolving cyber threats, including computer viruses and other forms of malware, whether you are using a computer running Windows, Apple, or Linux or whether it is a desktop, laptop, smartphone, or tablet.

The first thing you need to do to protect yourself and your data is to obtain knowledge of the threat currently facing you. The most common forms of malicious software, sometimes known as computer viruses, are broken down here, as well as the potential damage they might do.

The word “malware,” which is an amalgamation of the words “harmful” and “software,” is the phrase that is now used to describe any malicious computer program that is installed on a computer or mobile device. These programs are installed on users’ computers without their knowledge or consent and are capable of causing a variety of unwanted side effects.

These effects include slowing down the computer’s performance, mining your system for personally identifiable information (PII) and sensitive data, erasing or encrypting data, or even taking control of computer-controlled hardware or device operations.

Hackers are constantly developing new methods that are technically more advanced to penetrate user systems. It’s like playing a game of whack-a-mole: as soon as one danger is eliminated, another one pops up to take its place, and then the next iteration appears. Some of the most prevalent forms of malware are currently being used.

Misconceptions Regarding Malware 

Threats associated with malware often depend on widely held assumptions to generate easy targets. Simple adjustments to your conduct, such as gaining an awareness of some of the most frequently misinterpreted aspects, may remove you from the list of easy targets.

The belief that infection is immediately noticeable is one of the most widespread and typical misunderstandings about malware. Users often believe they will be aware if their computer is hacked.

On the other hand, malware is designed to carry out whatever purpose it was programmed to do for the most extended amount of time feasible. Therefore, there is no paper trail to trace, and your computer does not indicate that it is infected with malware.

Even malicious software like ransomware doesn’t reveal its existence until after it has successfully encrypted the user’s data and finished the first step of its mission, which is to demand payment in exchange for decrypting the files.

Many users assume that the photographs, documents, and files that make up their data have little value to those who create viruses. However, cybercriminals mine publicly available data, such as that on social networks, to create custom targeted attacks on individuals or to gather intelligence for spear phishing emails, which are famous for gaining access to the networks and assets of large organizations that are otherwise secure.

Warning Signs That Your Computer Is Infected with Malware and Viruses

Even while the vast majority of malicious software does not leave any traces behind and allows your computer to continue running correctly, there are occasions when there are clues that your computer may be compromised.

The most significant one is a drop in performance. This includes processes that move at a glacial pace, windows that take far longer than expected to load, and applications that seem to run randomly in the background. 

You could also discover that the homepage of the internet on your browser has been altered or that pop-up advertisements are appearing more often than they usually would. Malware can disrupt even the most fundamental aspects of a computer’s operation under certain circumstances.

You may not be able to start Windows at all, and it’s possible that you won’t be able to connect to the internet or use higher-level system management capabilities. Run an urgent scan of your system if you have any reason to believe that your computer may be contaminated. If nothing is discovered but you are still unsure, you should seek a second opinion by using an additional antivirus scanner.

In the best-case scenario, your goal should be to thwart an assault rather than uncover one. You should scan your device as soon as you suspect something is wrong; however, your best defense is a comprehensive internet security solution. 

This solution includes real-time scanning and monitoring of disk drives, files, and activities in addition to real-time updates on web threats provided by a team of experienced cyber security professionals.

If you want the best protection possible, you should invest in such a solution. This involves monitoring instant messaging services, screening email attachments, providing a firewall, and much more than just doing scheduled scans and performing periodic updates.

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Why is Ethical hacking important to a business?

Every company protects itself from potential threats by using a variety of security tools and policies. But how can you tell whether they are genuinely functioning or if there is a security weakness that might result in a security breach? This is where the practice of ethical hacking may be useful.

Ethical hackers are taking on an offensive role, with the permission of the company, of course, in order to attempt to get past the security systems before malicious hackers do. In order to get beyond security, they use the same strategies, methods, and ploys as a real hacker would. The company may utilize the results of the security gaps uncovered by the ethical hacker to prevent these problems from happening and, as a result, greatly lower the risk that the company is exposed to.

The move to the cloud has led to an increase in the need for ethical hackers.

The cloud, an environment in which virtualization and IT outsourcing are important trends, is where the information industry is going towards. Because of this transformation, there is now a higher degree of danger, which has led to an increasing need for ethical hackers. Since the introduction of cloud computing, security has become an increasingly important issue. Ethical hackers are necessary for businesses to hire if they want to get the advantages of cloud computing and virtualization without compromising their data security.

The rapidly evolving cyber environment and the increasingly complicated set of security regulations are the most significant obstacles that modern organizations must surmount. Hacking techniques advance on a daily basis, making it impossible for anybody except an experienced specialist to overcome this obstacle. Therefore, there is a significant need for ethical hackers in the modern commercial sector.

The input obtained through ethical hacking may be used by businesses to enhance the security detection and prevention methods used inside their organizations. This indicates that if their internal security was unable to identify the friendly infiltration, they have the ability to investigate where the error happened and make adjustments to the procedure so that it does not occur again in the future.

Training an organization’s cyber security staff in ethical hacking methods is very crucial due to the fact that the security team must learn to think like a hacker in order to build the organization’s security in a way that will avoid hacking breaches. White hat hacking and penetration testing are also alternate names for ethical hacking, which is also known as “ethical hacking.” These are trustworthy individuals that will assist in protecting your company.

Employing a Socially Responsible Hacker

The prices of security audits are different for different companies. Certain companies, particularly those with a huge user base, may have to pay far higher expenses than others, while others may spend less. There is a considerable expense associated with activities such as verifying firewalls, servers, and IP addresses; nevertheless, this expenditure is justifiable when contrasted with the damage incurred by cyberattacks. Ethical hackers may be hired by organizations to protect their networks, or firms might employ a company or agency that specializes in ethical hacking.

This choice was arrived at after considering a number of different things. Because only a few companies can afford it, it is impossible for them to let any other agent break into their systems from the outside, so they must pay ethical hackers to work within the company. Some companies hire companies that specialize in ethical hacking to secure their systems and networks. Ethical hackers are required to sign a legally binding contract with the host client that contains a number of different terms and conditions in either scenario.

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5 reasons Why You Should Study Cyber Security

Job possibilities are anticipated to increase significantly

Speaking of possibilities, the Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that through 2026, employment of Cybersecurity security professionals will expand by 28 percent, a pace that is much higher than the national average. The growing frequency of cyberattacks is one of the main forces behind this expansion.

However, where you are, high demand does not automatically equate to high potential. Elvis Moreland, a specialist in IT and cyber governance, notes that each metropolitan location will have a somewhat distinct work market, despite the fact that there is a healthy overall job market for this subject.

It’s an Exciting Job

Change is the only constant in the realm of cyber security. The sector not only experiences new advancements every day, but the workdays themselves are equally interesting and unique.

You must be dedicated to learning if you want to study and work in this industry. Because it is always changing, cyber security calls for commitment. Additionally, hackers will always come up with new methods to steal data, thus cyber security experts need to be prepared to recognize and stop these threats even before they materialize.

Due to the nature of the industry, hiring managers and professionals seem to prefer candidates that are knowledgeable and eager to learn more. Critical thinking abilities are essential for the work and are sometimes valued more than technical abilities.

There are many specialties in cyber security

For a time, the work of IT departments was essentially interwoven with responsibilities for cyber security. Although it is still intimately related to IT, cyber security is now a recognized field unto itself, and new roles and requirements are constantly emerging.

These specialties only expand the opportunities for experts in the sector to devote more time to what they like doing and hone their expertise in certain fields.

Cybersecurity experts are in high demand

There is little doubt that over the next several decades, every company will become even more dependent on data, as well as the systems that collect, transport, and analyze it. The quantity of data that has to be evaluated, modified, and safeguarded will increase at previously unheard-of rates as a result of the rapid use of IoT technology, he continues.

The fact that many occupations today have large portions of them automated is the reason for the rising need for these information security specialists. The fact that the majority of data is housed online has a direct bearing on the rise in cyberattacks.

The recent spate of high-profile data breaches has shown exactly how much a cyber-attack can harm a business. This is among the factors that make businesses choose to engage several security experts in dealing with cybercrime.

You Get the Chance to Solve Tricky Technical Puzzles

Many area experts see their job as the solution to a large, challenging technological riddle. You will learn how to get into the system, defend it against a cyberattack, and make it safer. As a result, cyber security is a two-sided dilemma. On the one hand, you must consider how to compromise the system, and on the other, you must consider how to stop it from occurring.

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How is security for mobile applications implemented?

Mobile application security concerns how well mobile applications on different operating systems, such as Android, iOS, and Windows Phone, are protected by software. This includes programs that work on tablets and mobile phones. It entails examining software programs for security flaws within the settings of the platforms they are intended to operate on, the development frameworks they utilize, and the target audience they are intended for, e.g., employees vs. end users. A business’s internet presence must include mobile applications, and many companies depend solely on them to interact with customers worldwide.

All widely used mobile platforms include security controls to assist software developers in creating safe apps. But often, it is up to the developer to choose a wide range of security alternatives. Lack of screening might result in the deployment of simple security features for attackers to exploit.

These are typical problems that impact mobile apps:

  • storing or inadvertently exposing private information in a manner that other phone apps might read it.
  • putting shoddy authentication and permission measures that malicious programs or users may get over.
  • using data encryption techniques well-known to be weak or quickly cracked.
  • sending private information online without encryption.

These flaws might be taken advantage of in a variety of ways, for as, by malicious software installed on a user’s device or by an attacker with access to the same WiFi network as a user.

Mobile apps are tested for security using hostile users’ techniques to attack them. Understanding the application’s business function and the kinds of data it processes is the first step in doing effective security testing. From then, a successful holistic assessment is produced by combining static analysis, dynamic analysis, and penetration testing to uncover vulnerabilities that would be overlooked if the approaches were not utilized properly. The testing procedure consists of:

  • interaction with the application and comprehension of data transmission, storage, and reception processes.
  • restoring the application’s encrypted sections.
  • examining the application’s code once it has been decompiled.
  • identifying security flaws in the decompiled code using static analysis.
  • driving dynamic analysis and penetration testing with the knowledge gathered from static and reverse engineering analysis.
  • assessing the efficiency of security measures (such as authentication and authorization controls) employed inside the application using dynamic analysis and penetration testing.

Various paid and free mobile application security solutions are available, and they differ in their ability to evaluate apps using static or dynamic testing approaches. However, no one tool can evaluate the application as its whole. Instead, the optimum coverage requires a mix of static and dynamic testing and human review.

Mobile application security testing may be seen as a pre-production check to verify that security measures in an application function as planned and to defend against implementation problems. It may assist in identifying edge circumstances that the development team might not have foreseen and end up as security flaws. To guarantee that problems are found before going live, the testing procedure considers code and configuration concerns in a production-like environment.

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Identity and Access Management in Cyber Security

One of the most popular methods used by hackers to access networks of businesses is via malware, phishing, and ransomware assaults is compromised user credentials. Therefore, it is crucial for businesses to protect their most valuable resources. To safeguard their data and employees, many are turning more and more to Identity and Access Management (IAM) technologies.

IAM is a system of rules, procedures, and tools that enables businesses to govern user access to sensitive company data and digital identities. IAM enhances security and user experience, allows better business results, and boosts the feasibility of mobile and remote working as well as cloud adoption by assigning users with particular roles and ensuring they have the proper amount of access to company resources and networks.

IAM is as useful for major companies as it is for medium and small firms. Identity management solutions are essential for businesses to automatically manage the identities and access rights of users in different locations, computing environments, and on many devices. Large enterprises and SMEs may select from a variety of systems that simplify user access, do away with the need for passwords, and authenticate users on any device and from any location.

Control of access based on role

IAM frameworks are essential for both enabling role-based access control and limiting user access to sensitive information. As a result, system administrators may control access to corporate networks or systems based on the roles of specific users, which are determined by their position within the company, degree of power, and scope of their responsibilities.

De-Provisioning automatically

In order to reduce security threats once workers leave a company, an IAM solution is essential. It may often take a while or even be completely forgotten to manually deprovision access credentials to the applications and services the departing employee utilized, exposing a security hole for hackers. IAM stops this by automatically de-provisioning access permissions when a person quits their job or when their position within the firm changes.

Device and Human Identification

In addition to managing the identities of devices and apps, IAM also controls the digital identities of people. As a result, it is easier to determine if a user is who they claim to be and what apps they are authorized to access.

The advantages of using an identity management system for enterprises are many and include:

Secure access: Sharing networks with additional staff members, independent contractors, clients, and partners may boost productivity and efficiency, but it also raises security risks. Businesses may expand access to their applications, networks, and systems both on-premises and in the cloud with an IAM solution without sacrificing security.

Reduced help desk requests: By automating password resets and help desk inquiries, an IAM system eliminates the need for users to submit them. This allows customers to swiftly and simply confirm their identification without disturbing system administrators, who can then concentrate on duties that have a bigger positive impact on the company’s bottom line.

Less risk: Less risk of internal and external data breaches results from improved user access management. This is crucial because user credentials are becoming a more popular target for hackers looking to access business networks and resources.

Meeting compliance requirements: In the face of a world of increasingly strict data and privacy rules, an efficient IAM system aids a firm in meeting its compliance requirements.

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Understanding Malware Analysis

Static Analysis

Running the code is not necessary for simple static analysis. Instead, the static analysis looks for indications of harmful intent in the file. Identifying malicious infrastructure, libraries, or packaged files may be valuable.

Technical indications such as file names, hashes, strings including IP addresses and domain names, and file header data may be employed to detect whether a file is malicious. To learn more about how the virus works, monitoring it without executing it using tools like network analyzers and disassemblers is possible.

Dynamic Analysis

In a secure sandbox environment, suspected dangerous code is executed during dynamic malware analysis. Security experts may see the virus in operation thanks to this closed system without worrying about it getting on their computers or leaking into the company network. Deeper visibility made possible by dynamic analysis gives threat researchers and incident responders the ability to identify a threat’s genuine nature. Automated sandboxing also saves time by avoiding the need to reverse engineer a file to find dangerous code.

Hybrid Analysis

Complex malicious code may sometimes evade detection by sandbox technology, and simple static analysis is not a reliable method of doing so. The hybrid analysis combines static and dynamic analysis techniques and gives security teams the best of both worlds. This is because it can find malicious code trying to hide and then extract many indicators of compromise (IOCs) by statically analyzing previously unknown code. Even the most complex malware threats may be found through hybrid analysis.

Malware Detection

Adversaries are using more advanced methods to elude existing detection systems. Threats may be identified more successfully using comprehensive behavioral analysis and detecting standard code, malicious functionality, or infrastructure. Extraction of IOCs is another result of malware investigation. To help teams be alerted to relevant risks in the future, the IOCs may subsequently be fed into SEIMs, threat intelligence platforms (TIPs), and security orchestration tools.

Static Properties Analysis

Strings encoded in malicious code, header information, hashes, metadata, embedded resources, etc., are examples of static attributes. There is no requirement to execute the application to see this kind of data, making it possible that it is all that is required to generate IOCs. A further study utilizing more thorough methods may be required, and the next course of action may be determined based on the knowledge gained during the static analysis.

Interactive Behavior Analysis

A malware sample operating in a lab is observed and interacted with using behavioral analysis. Analysts aim to comprehend the operations of the sample’s registry, file system, processes, and networks. They could also do memory forensics to understand how the virus consumes memory. The analysts may build a simulation to verify their hypothesis if they believe the virus has a particular capability. A creative analyst with exceptional abilities is needed for behavioral analysis. Without automated technologies, lengthy and complex procedures cannot be completed successfully.

Fully Automated Analysis

The automatic analysis evaluates suspicious files fast and efficiently. The research may identify possible consequences if the virus were to penetrate the network and then provide a report that is simple to read and offers quick solutions for security professionals. The most efficient approach to analyzing malware at scale is fully automated analysis.

Manual Code Reversing

During this phase, analysts use debuggers, disassemblers, compilers, and other specialized tools to reverse-engineer code to decrypt encrypted data, ascertain the reasoning behind the malware algorithm, and comprehend any hidden capabilities that the virus has not yet shown. Code reversals need a lot of time to complete and require unique talent. Due to these factors, malware investigations often skip this phase and omit important information on the virus’s makeup.

Understanding Cryptography and Encryption

The study of data encryption and decryption techniques is the focus of the mathematical discipline of cryptography. Encryption uses an algorithm, or cipher, to turn plain text into ciphertext, a coded communication. Authorized people with unique expertise may only access the data, sometimes referred to as a key.

Nearly all references to encryption, which is the act of turning standard information (known as plaintext) into nonsensical nonsense, are to cryptography, which is both an art and a science called ciphertext. Another way to put it is that communicating in the presence of an adversary is what cryptography is all about. In the emerging information society, cryptography ensures the permission, authentication, integrity, secrecy, and non-repudiation of all conversations and data transfers.

Computer data may be protected via encryption, including files on computers and external storage devices. Encryption serves as a safeguard against unauthorized access to sensitive data. Particularly for sensitive data, this is crucial. Such data is protected by encryption in case physical protection measures are unsuccessful.

Data encrypted with a password or secret key must be decoded during the decryption process. It won’t be feasible to get the encryption key and then decode the encoded data if the password is incorrect.

Cryptography was almost exclusively used in political, military, and diplomatic settings until the 1970s. The finance and telecommunications sectors implemented hardware cryptography devices in the 1980s. The digital mobile phone system in the late 1980s was the first widespread cryptographic application.

Today, everyone uses cryptography regularly. Some examples include using a remote control to open a car or garage door, connecting to a wireless LAN, using a credit or debit card to make purchases in-person or online, updating software, making voice-over-IP calls, or paying for a ride on a public transportation system.

There is little question that new application fields like e-health, auto telematics, and smart buildings will increase the use of cryptography. At the nexus of computer science, mathematics, and electrical engineering, cryptology is a fascinating field. It is challenging to keep up with all the innovations in cryptology since it moves so quickly.

The theoretical underpinnings of the field have been enhanced over the last 25 years; we now have a firm grasp on how to define security and demonstrate that a building is secure. Applied cryptography is also undergoing rapid growth, with outdated algorithms being abandoned and replaced by new ones.

Everything now incorporates cryptography, including Web browsers, email clients, mobile devices, credit cards, automobiles, and even medical implants. Radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags for anti-counterfeiting or car-to-car communications are just a few of the fascinating new cryptography applications that will be available soon.

This is a significant shift from the past, when cryptography had often only been used in narrow applications, including financial systems and government communications. Due to the widespread use of crypto algorithms, more and more individuals need to grasp how they operate and how to use them in real-world situations.